Essay on United Nation UN
Essay on United Nation and its establishment
President Roosevelt, President of the United Sates and Winston Churchill, PM of the United Kingdom along with their allies started work after the World War II. Their aim was to establish an organization to stop wars like WW-I (1914-1918) and WW-II (1940-45), and to strengthen peace and prosperity in the world.
Originally, it was planned at a Conference of Nations held at Dumbarton Oaks, U.S.A., and at another held a few months later at San Francisco. As a result of these summits, United Nation came to existence on 24th October, 1945. It coined the name of United Nation due to declaration formally made by the two above-mentioned premiers as “declaration of united nations”, at the White House, 29 December 1941. UN is currently comprises of 193 Member States. Following four major points were agreed in the founding summits:
Founding Objectives of UN
(i) to maintain world peace,
(ii) to promote justice,
(iii) to increase the world’s general welfare, and
(iv) to establish human rights.
Besides this, five principal organs of the UN was also established which are
1. General Assembly
2. Security Council
3. Economic and Social Council
5. International Court of Justice
6. Trusteeship Council (ineffective since 1994, as there is trustee territory)
UNGA is one of the six main organs of the UN, where each member states have equal representation. Its first session was convened on 10th of January 1946 in the Westminster Central Hall in London, with participation of 51 member states. Its head quarter is at New York, USA. Its annual (each year September) session is held usually at the ending of each year in which delegates of all members states participate. Moreover, premier of member states also deliver their speeches in the annual session, in which issues related to world and member states are discussed. Special and emergency sessions were also held. The head of UNGA is Secretary General. UNGA has powers to administer the budget of the United Nations, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, it also receive reports from other organs of the United Nations and make sanctions and recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions.
Usually matters of peace and security, budgetary concerns and the election, inclusion and exclusion of any member state are made by the 2/3 voting, whereas the simple majority decides other ancillary matters. UNGA subsidiary organs include various committees, boards, commissions, and working groups. The General Assembly, each year, elects a GA President to serve a one-year term of office.
Security comprises of 15 members (05 permanent and 10 non-permanent). Permanent members enjoy the power of veto ( veto mean to suspend and disagree with any resolution and decision). Once a decision is veto by any permanent member, there will be no more action on the issue under consideration. Its main function is to maintain peace and security in the world, and settle the disputes in peaceful manner. Its resolution and decisions are binding on the member states. The premiership of the Security Council revolves alphabetically each month. It also has committees and bodies to implement and see implementation process of each resolution.
Economic and Social Council:
ECOSOC is one of the main six organs of the United Nation. it is a principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as implementation of internationally agreed development goals. It has to assist UNGA. It has 54 members states which are elected for a three year term. It is a forum to discuss development issues.
The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General and comprises of tens of thousands of international UN staff members who perform the daily business of the UN as authorized by the General Assembly and the Organization’s other principal organs.
International Court of Justice:
It is one of the principal judicial organs of UN. Its headquarter is at Hague (Netherlands). It settles legal disputes submitted by the member states as per international laws. ICJ gives advisory opinion and decisions on the legal question and disputes raised by the member states. The ICJ comprises of 15 judges who serve 9-year terms and are appointed by the General Assembly; every sitting judge must be from a different nation.
Trusteeship Council was established in 1945. It main function was to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories that had been placed under the administration of seven Member States. Council had/have to make adequate steps to prepare the Territories for self-government and independence. By 1994, all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence. Therefore, council is inactive since 1994.
Specialized agencies and fund programs of United Nation
United Nation has a number of specialized agencies along with its six main organs. Their name and function are described as under:-
1)UNDP (United Nation Development Programme)
It is United Nation global development network, focusing on the challenges of democratic governance, poverty reduction, crisis prevention and recovery, energy and environment, and HIV/AIDS.
2)UNICEF(United Nation Children Fund)
This sub organ of United Nations provides long-term humanitarian and development assistance to children and mothers.
3)UNHCR (United Nation High Commission for Refugees)
This agency has responsibility to protect and facilitate refugees on humanitarian basis until their safe return to their parent country.
4)UNODC (United Nation Office on Drug and Crime)
Its mandate is to help all member states against crimes, drugs and terrorism issue.
5) WFP (World Food Programme)
It is the one of the world largest organization serving in more than 75 countries. Its main objective is to eradicate hunger and malnutrition in the member states.
6) UNFPA (United Nation Population Fund)
Its aim is to tackle the issues related human birth and control of population.
7) UNCTAD (United Nation Conference on Trade and Development)
It deals with the issue of development about world trade.
8) UNEP (United Nation Environment Programme)
It was established 1972. Its aim is to deal with the environmental issue being faced by the world in this reign of the industrialization.
9) UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency)
It has played tremendous role for welfare and human development of Palestine refugees. Fields of education, health care, relief and social services, camp infrastructure and improvement, microfinance and emergency assistance, including in times of armed conflict are also in its sphere of administration
10) UN Women (United Nations Women)
It is working for women and gender empowerment and equality among the member nations.
11) UN-Habitat (United Nation Habitat)
It deals with the Human settlement issue among the member states.
Autonomous Organization of United Nation.
Bank provides loans at comparatively low interest rates to the developing and even developed countries for providing assistance in poverty reduction and the improvement of living standards worldwide. It has a group of banks namely International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) ,International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), International Development Association (IDA), International Finance Corporation (IFC), Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA).
IMF (International Monetary Fund)
It may be called a monitoring body, which monitor the economy all over the world. It also provides assistance in shape of loan.
WHO (World Health Organization)
It has played major role around the globe for eradication of polio and other diseases. It also deals with other issues related to health.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)
It is providing assistance in the shape of training in the education sector moreover it is also striving for rehabilitation and care of World heritage.
ILO (International Labor Organization)
It deals with the issues related to the labor, and working for the betterment of labor class around the globe.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
It provides assistance in the shape of training and material in the area of food and agriculture among the member states.
IFAD(International Fund for Agricultural Development)
It is body for provision of assistance in agriculture sector and development among the member states, it also provide loans to the needy countries for agricultural development.
IMO (International Maritime Organization)
It is a regulatory body. That deals with the rules regarding shipping, environment and security etc.
WMO (World Meteorological Organization)
It works for the areas of aviation, shipping, security and agriculture etc.
WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization)
It works for intellectual property.
ICAO (International Civilian Aviation Organization)
It deals with aviation, security and air crash inquiry and other allied matters for civil aviation departments.
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
It is organization for communication and their advancement. It works for right of communication for everyone.
UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization)
It is working for industrial development for poverty reduction, inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability among the member states..
UPU (Universal Postal Union)
It deals in the area of postal services and their rules and regulations
UNWTO (World Tourism Organization )
It is working for promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism among members nations.
It is a joint venture of UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP, UNDP, UNFPA, UNODC, the ILO, UNESCO, WHO for elimination and stopping spread of HIV/AIDS.
It is programme for keeping an eye on the disaster and their management in the world.
The United Nations Office for Project Services is a body for peace building and implementation of human rights observations.
It is a body for working peaceful and safe use of atomic energy and its promotion among the member states.
WTO (World Trade Organization)
It deals with the problems of trades and tariff among the member states.
It is comprehensive test ban treaty for nuclear and atomic energy and weapons. It is not active.